How to Delete Crossover on a Mac | uxijrr.me
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Glottic view based on Cormack and Lehane classification. The results for time to view the cords and time to intubate in both scenarios are graphically represented Fig. Figure 2. Boxplots depicting the time to view the vocal cords and the time to intubate in easy A and B and difficult C and D airway simulations. A significant difference between devices was observed for the time taken from visualisation of the vocal cords to correct placement of the ETT Fig. Figure 3.
Boxplots depicting the time taken from visualisation of the vocal cords to placement of the endotracheal tube ETT in the trachea in easy A and difficult B airway simulations. There were no significant differences between groups for the time taken to view the vocal cords, the incidence of successful ETT placement in the trachea or the number of intubation attempts. The McGrath MAC needed fewer attempts to intubate and also had the highest intubation success rate There were no significant differences between devices for the time taken from visualisation of the vocal cords to correct placement of the ETT Fig.
Participants rated the indirect laryngoscopes well, as their hypothetically preferred laryngoscope in an emergency setting, but post hoc analysis showed no significant differences between groups Fig. Figure 4. This study in a simulated manikin model, evaluating the performance of practitioners experienced in direct laryngoscopy but inexperienced with these indirect laryngoscopes, the time to NTI was significantly shorter using the McGrath MAC in the easy and difficult airway settings and the Airtraq in the difficult scenario.
Indirect laryngoscopes also offered superior views of the glottis before additional optimisation strategies. Secondary endpoints suggested that they might also reduce the risk of dental injury and high upper airway forces. The reduced intubation time found in the McGrath MAC group corroborates a preliminary clinical study that compared the Macintosh with the McGrath series 5. The Airtraq NT provided more grade 1 laryngoscopic views than the other two devices, yet intubation times were longer and more attempts were required to intubate when compared with the McGrath MAC.
By contrast, the speed of oral intubation with the standard Airtraq was faster than other devices. Extra manoeuvres may be necessary and the four intubation failures we observed occurred because participants had difficulty placing the ETT into the glottis. This is considered a general limitation of indirect laryngoscopes. Airtraq NT and McGrath MAC appeared to reduce forces and the risk of dental trauma compared with the Macintosh, which is consistent with previous studies using indirect laryngoscopes.
Familiarity with the Macintosh laryngoscope for routine tracheal intubation could have introduced bias in this study. However, there was no relationship between the experience of the operator and the time taken for NTI with indirect laryngoscopes. This corroborates previous trials indicating that novel optical and video laryngoscopes are easy to use and have a similar learning curve for both resident and staff anaesthetists.
Few publications have addressed this topic, 27—29 although two recent clinical studies suggest that the Airtraq NT may be more useful than the Macintosh. Our study has several limitations. The major limitation is that we used a manikin instead of patients. An airway simulator does not reproduce clinical intubating conditions exactly, with real-life differences including the appearance of humidified gas, secretions or blood, which add to difficulty.
However manikin studies allow well-controlled and reproducible conditions, especially for untested medical devices.
This avoids harm to patients and maintains strict standardisation of study conditions compared to the variability of differing patient airway anatomy. In addition, we only used one approach to a difficult airway scenario and other scenarios may result in alternative performance by the device. Nevertheless, recent clinical studies support the main findings in this simulation model. We attempted to control this by predetermining clear and consistent endpoints and using a randomised crossover design.
The sample size was calculated based on the time to intubation, so our secondary endpoint and subgroup analyses may have been underpowered. Finally, there are a number of other videolaryngoscopes available, so our study only contributes to general understanding in this area. In conclusion, in this manikin study, the Airtraq and the McGrath laryngoscopes appeared more useful than the conventional Macintosh laryngoscope under simulated conditions.
Both devices were associated with shorter intubation times and fewer attempts and greater satisfaction, possibly because of the better view which appeared to result from fewer additional manoeuvres to improve the view.
The clinical relevance is unknown until similar comparative clinical studies have been conducted to establish the benefits and the disadvantages of these devices during nasotracheal intubation. Funding This work was supported by departmental and institutional funds only.
Conflicts of interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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How to Delete Crossover on a Mac
Though some software manufacturers distribute Mac versions of their programs, others only release Windows versions. Codeweavers’s Crossover software allows Mac users to run most Windows software in the Mac computing environment. If you no longer need to run Windows software on a Mac, you can uninstall it. Removing software from a Mac is different than uninstalling software on Windows. You need to manually remove files and folders from several locations on your Mac’s hard drive.
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Glottic view based on Cormack and Lehane classification. The results for time to view the cords and time to intubate in both scenarios are graphically represented Fig.
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